Cosmic Journeys – Fate of Antarctica

Cosmic Journeys – Fate of Antarctica


It�s a land piled high with ice. Whipped by fierce winds. And powerful ocean currents. In a world buffeted by rising temperatures,
rising sea levels, and changing climate patterns, what is the fate of Antarctica? If you could go back to a time 250 million
years ago. What�s now the frozen continent of Antarctica,
was a land of forests and flowing water. In a warmer, wetter world, it harbored a wide
diversity of plants and animals. In this period, known as the Permian, Antarctica
was at the southern end of a vast single continent that spanned the globe, called Pangaea. Within the sweeping evolution of this grand
continent, a single event would reverberate down through history. An asteroid headed toward the southern hemisphere. At up to fifty kilometers in diameter, it
would have been four to five times larger than the one thought to have killed off the
dinosaurs. It crashed into a region that�s now part
of East Antarctica, but its impact was global in scale. One theory is that it sent powerful seismic
waves to the exact opposite, or antipodal, side of the Earth. On what�s now Siberian Russia, a plume of
magma pushed up through Earth�s crust. For tens of thousands of years, lava flooded the
landscape. A release of toxic elements, a rush of carbon
dioxide into the atmosphere, acid rain, all led to one of the worst mass extinctions in
history. 70% of all species on the planet vanished. On Earth, traces of most major impacts are
obscured by erosion or geological activity. A new type of observational tool is now allowing
scientists to see them. In 2002, they launched the twin spacecraft
of the GRACE mission, short for Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory. Its goal was to map subsurface features by
measuring variations in Earth�s gravity. A gravitational surge or a dip causes the
distance between the two craft to change, which GRACE measures down to the width of
a human hair. Down along the Eastern part of Antarctica,
GRACE detected an immense subsurface presence. Scientists matched it up with subtle rings
etched on the wider landscape, and with chemical traces found in nearby mountains. They concluded
that a large meteor had struck at the end of the Permian. It would have a lasting impact on Antarctica�s
long and tumultuous journey. That journey began in the break up of an immense
continent known as Rodinia, beginning around 750 million years ago. In those days, Antarctica basked in the tropical
sun. Some 300 million years later, as Earth�s
landmasses reshuffled into the supercontinent Pangaea. When Pangaea finally fragmented, Antarctica
began a steady drive toward the southern pole as part of the great southern continent of
Gondwana. At around 130 million years ago, a series
of rifts developed in Earth�s crust, tearing South America and Africa away from Gondwana. Australia finally split off at about 85 million
years ago, leaving Antarctica on its own. Because the rift between the two cuts through
the Permian crater, one theory holds that the force of the impact may have actually
initiated it. Now separated from its sister landmasses,
Antarctica carried a rich biological legacy, evident in fossils recently pulled from the
frozen ground. The Cryolophosaurus, from 190 million years
ago, was in a class of meat eaters called theropods. These bipedal creatures gave rise to some
of the fiercest predators ever, including TRex, as well as modern-day birds. Out on the West Antarctic Peninsula, scientists
turned up a smaller theropod from 70 million years ago. This swift predator would have
grown to about two meters in length. From the same period, another group found
a young plesiosaur, a marine reptile that plied warm Southern Oceans. If it had reached adulthood, it would have
grown to around 10 meters in length. From a continent that once hosted dinosaurs,
Antarctica grew steadily more hostile to life. Wind the clock forward, to 50 million years
ago. All around the world, warm conditions were
giving way to cooler, drier times. The new era saw a decline in the heat-trapping
atmospheric gas, carbon dioxide. Around Antarctica, conifers and other cold-tolerant
plants took hold. In some areas, they gradually turned to tundra. Ice remained year round, gradually forming
a thick sheet. At the same time, powerful wind currents circling
the pole from west to east drove the circumpolar ocean current. Known as the mightiest current in the world,
it helped shield the continent from tropical waters to the north. A combination of factors came together: declining
CO2, the isolation of Antarctica, and the tendency of permanent ice stores to reflect
more solar energy back to space. At around two and a half million years ago,
Earth entered the last great ice age, the one we live in, called the Quaternary. Year after year, as storms rolled off the
oceans, they deposited layer upon layer of snow and ice across Antarctica. Today, fully 70 percent of all the fresh water
on the planet is here, in ice that averages nearly two kilometers in thickness. Antarctica today is known as the windiest,
driest, and coldest place on Earth. There are no permanent human populations,
only a few thousand scientists and support workers living at scattered research stations. At the Russian Vostok station, in July 1983,
scientists documented the lowest natural temperature on record: -89.2 degrees Celsius. A recent calculation based on satellite data
went even lower, to -93.2 degrees Celsius. But as cold and isolated as it is, Antarctica
is not immune to changes in the larger environment. Take, for example, this reconstruction of
the continent during the last glacial maximum, 20 thousand years ago. Compare it to this image of the current interglacial
period. It shows how much ice the continent has shed. In recent years, the rate of ice loss has
picked up speed. Scientists have turned to satellites to find
out where and how quickly this trend is playing out. In these images, from the GRACE mission, areas
that lost ice are shown in blue, while orange and red gained ice. European scientists backed up this finding
with radar data from the Cryosat-2 spacecraft. By tracking changes in the elevation of Antarctic
ice, they found that the continent lost on average 159 billion tons of ice each year
from 2010 to 2013. That�s an increase of 31% per year over
the previous five years. Like GRACE, Cryosat-2 found that the greatest
losses have occurred in West Antarctica, especially where a series of fast-flowing glaciers empty
into the Amundsen Sea. A small number of scientists were warning
about this as far back as the 1960s. The reason, they pointed out, is the intensification
of winds that encircle the continent. As the temperature difference with northern
regions has increased, these winds have picked up speed. To sailors brave enough to venture into them,
the southern ocean once offered the quickest route around the world. Nowadays, stronger winds have had the effect
of drawing to the surface relatively warm water that occurs naturally in the depths
of the ocean. These warmer waters have begun to undermine
a series of vast floating ice shelves that extend out from inland glaciers. Scientists, using data from the IceSat spacecraft,
documented this effect by correlating areas of greatest ice loss with the location of
submarine troughs that can funnel the warm water up. These satellite images from over a decade
ago show the effect this can have. Out on the West Antarctic Peninsula, the Larsen ice
shelf extended out over the ocean. This image, from early February of 2002, shows
Larsen beginning to splinter. By March 7th of that year, this ice shelf,
hundreds of meters thick, broke apart. Countless icebergs tumbled into the sea. Without the shelf�s buttressing effect,
the glaciers behind it picked up speed, dumping an additional 27 cubic kilometers of ice into
the ocean each year. That has led scientists to monitor the other
great ice shelves of west Antarctica. One team set up its base on the Pine Island
Glacier, where it juts out into the Amundsen Sea. From the surface, they drilled down through
500 meters of ice to track changes in temperature, salinity, currents, and ice volume. They found that warmer waters had been eroding
the underside of the ice shelf, with melt rates of about 6 centimeters per day, or about
22 meters per year. Another group has been using satellite and
airborne radar to track the changes on a regional scale. Red shows where the glaciers are traveling
at their highest speeds, at the intersection of ice and ocean. The flow speed is steadily increasing. The
darker the red, the faster the ice is moving. Some of the most dramatic changes have been
observed on the Smith glacier, one of the smallest in this group. Back in 1996, this is where water, ice, and
land met beneath Smith. By 2011, that so-called �grounding line�
had moved 35 kilometers farther back, a retreat of more than two kilometers per year. Now peel off the ice from the continent. The
red arrows show the highest flow rates. You can see that these fast moving glaciers
sit within valleys, some of which are below sea level. The more the grounding lines retreat, the
more seawater can creep into the sub-glacial basins. For most of the glaciers, there are no major
barriers such as hills or mountains that would slow them down once they get going. The danger is the more the glaciers speed
up, the more likely the ice sheets behind them will collapse. If that happens, it may not be completely
due to climate change. Scientists have found that the flow of water
beneath some glaciers is too high to come just from seawater. The Transantarctic Mountains, dividing East
and West Antarctica, are the product of a rift that is occurring in the underlying crustal
plate. Scientists have detected seismic activity
they say is consistent with magma moving within the crust over 25 kilometers down. They have now found there is a significant
amount of geothermal activity beneath one of the largest glaciers, the Thwaites, to
account for the extra melting. To date, most studies of future sea level
rise have focused on the ice sheets of Greenland and Western Antarctica. Together, they would
account for up to 12 meters of sea level rise. The massive East Antarctic ice sheet has been
largely ignored. Because of its sheer size and unwavering cold, it has seemed impervious
to warming trends in the north. New research has given scientists reason to
wonder how stable it really is. One new study takes us back to a period called
the Pliocene, from about 5 to 2.5 million years ago. Back then, global temperatures
and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were about where they are projected to be at the end
of this century. Sea levels are thought to have been at least
20 meters higher than today. If any part of East Antarctica had melted,
it would have been here in a region called Wilkes Land. This is where the GRACE satellites detected
signs of the massive Permian impact. If the
glaciers of Wilkes Land are prone to melting
in warmer times, then erosion would have washed its distinctive volcanic soils into the sea. By drilling down into ocean sediments, scientists
were able to find them just off shore. They concluded that in the Pliocene, seawater
was able to erode rocks about 160 kilometers inland in an area called the Wilkes Sub-glacial
Basin. How stable is the Wilkes ice sheet today? Currently, it is said to be in balance. This
means the amount of ice that melts or falls into the sea is replaced by new ice that forms
inland. Scientists used a computer simulation to find
out what it would take to throw Wilkes out of balance. A crucial factor in their calculation is a
zone in which the ice shelf is wedged against a series of ridges on the sea bottom. These
ridges act as a stopper, preventing the glacier, and the ice sheet behind it, from moving forward. If warmer waters were to undermine the ice
that rests on these ridges, then the ice sheet could begin to move out to sea. The effect has been described as that of a
bottle of water tilted downward. Remove the stopper, and gravity empties it out. For a glacier, once the ice starts flowing,
there would be no stopping it. How plausible is this scenario? On the much smaller Pine Island glacier, scientists
have shown that the ice shelf has already broken free of an undersea ridge. The disintegration of coastal Antarctic glaciers
is a process that would take centuries to run its course. But once it gets going, it
would mean a steady rise of sea levels for the foreseeable future. The changes we experience in our everyday
lives are shaped mostly by near-term developments, in technology, politics, and culture. Some of the bedrocks of modern life, cities
like New York, Hong Kong, London, and seaports around the world, have grown and evolved on
the scale of centuries. Within the long arc of their histories, rising
seas could threaten their existence in a relatively short time frame. The emerging story of ice sheet melting and
sea level rise is often couched in uncertainties, with the drama of what�s happening damped
by the rational language of science. Critics focus on the margins of error inherent
in the scientific process, or downplay the predictive power of computer simulations. Politicians debate, while conspiracy theories
abound. One of the lessons of Antarctica is that our
choices are beginning to narrow. The trends we see now will increasingly shape the fate
of Antarctica, and that of the world we know. 3

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    Jameson Koolio

    what evidence do they even have to claim "millions of years"? its not like they can see into the past

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    Les Paul

    First time I've heard an asteroid crashed into Antarctica caused the Permian extinction. 70% of species went extinct? I've always heard it was more like 90.

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    Jj T

    Amazing how true this video has proven to be. Amazing also, though sad, is the section of comments with legions of imbeciles offering uninformed and unwanted opinions that only demonstrate how stupid they are.

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    Allen Holden

    IT'S NOT HOW MANY PATCHES OR MICROPHONES IT THE EFFORT GONE TO BY MANY TO WEAR JUST ONE IF TWO AND TENDERFOOT IS THE TOUGHEST PART NOW THAT IT'S TIME FOR BLACK BELT BE A REAL MAN YES A TRUE BOY SCOUT AND LEARN TO WALK AS ONE STAY WITH YOUR FRIENDS ALSO BE KIND TO OTHERS YOU'LL NEVER GET HONEST RESULTS BY YOURSELF NOW THAT YOUR GOING GREAT THERE'S ALWAYS SOMETHING TO DO AND SOMEONE TO TALK TO BUT THERE AREN'T TOO MANY CLEAN PLACES LEFT TO CAMP BECAUSE CAMPING AT HOME IS THE WAY TO DO IT I CAN'T STRESS THE IMPORTANCE OF A MESS KIT AND SOME ROYAL RED SMOKER FLARES FOR SNOWBOUND STUDY

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    Allen Holden

    OK OUR WORLD COULD REPAIR ITSELF AND GROW COOL AGAIN WITH A CONTROLLED ICE AGE HEAVIER SNOW PLACE BUT LIGHT FLAKES MOSTLY OTHER DIVERSE…..IM PULLING FOR STEAM OR THE TRIASSIC COAL ON ARMOURTAIL PLATYPUS 3/4 3/4 ASTRAL STUDIES WITH REPORT

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    South Bronx, NY

    Its not the earths fault. The discovery of ancient civiltions under 200ft of water now clearly shows the ocean levels have been rising for a long time already. It's mans' stupidity to have cities right at the coast before doing the research. IT'S MANS' FAULT , NOT THE EARTH!!!!

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    Peter Gadd

    Bullshit. If the ice was on the verge melting why haven't governments done something about it.??? We all live on this planet.🖕

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    knotkool1

    yawn. the current ice age, (yes, CURRENT), the late cenozoic, started 34 million years ago.   I can't do time elapsed videot but imagine a time elapsed video of antarctica covering 34 million years.  in an ice age there are glaciations and interglacials. there have been a dozen or more. we are 12,000 years into one of these warming periods. maybe it's the last one and it will just keep warming but maybe not.  humans have never not been in an ice age.  just the scale of this dwarfs to meaningless drivel what you alarmists have to say.  there have been 5, well, 5 1/2 ice ages in earths history and the ice cores from the previous 4 1/5  sho…, oh wait. there are no ice cores.  because all the ice Melted. ALL of it. earth is cooling.  has been for 4.5 billion years. will cool until the sun grows big enough to heat it up and destroy it.  gonna happen.  no stopping it.  if you want to save mankind, you have to focus on the prize and stop whining about chicken little, boondoggles like anthropogenic climate change.

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    grindupBaker

    At 2:07 "50 kilometres in diameter" and then shows the rock spinning for 10 seconds heating in Earth's atmosphere by friction. Come on people, blast the cobwebs out of your brains. At 50 km diameter the rock strikes Earth when the top of it is 50 km up precisely at the top of the stratosphere where the mesosphere starts. The top of the rock is practically still in space when the bottom of it hits Earth. If you saw it from a commercial jet at cruising altitude you'd see it hit Earth far far below (below the clouds) and look up to see it extends up 5x as high as your jet. This pulverizes and vaporizes billions of tonnes of solid rock. Can you imagine how it just punches the atmosphere out of the way in a fraction of 1 second as though air was identical to the vacuum of space, which it is to this rock. The Chelyabinsk asteroid was just 18 m in diameter. He's saying this rock is 50,000 metres in diameter. Meteor speed is 11-72 km / second so if this one was 40 km / second and 50 kilometres in diameter then it's closest point reaches the top of the stratosphere where the air density is 1,290th of the air density you are breathing at the surface. It's essentially still in space, then all of 1.3 seconds later it smashes into the ground and it punches out air for the entire troposphere for the 50 km diameter like it didn't even exist, sending a pressure wave around Earth's atmosphere. You see a rock in space above and 1.3 seconds later it's all over. Check how long 1.3 seconds is on your cell phone stop watch. This ain't no pissy little baseball spinning for 10 seconds heating in Earth's atmosphere by friction.like in the video Otherwise, good interesting video nicely crafted. Omitted the big, long, interesting atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) event before humans started the even funner one. Starting 82,000,000 years ago the plate with India on it barrelled north east from Antarctica to Asia at a blistering 8" year churning up the sea bed and releasing CO2 for the 30,000,000 years until India smashed into Asia. By then it had raised atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) to a huge 1,000-1,800 ppmv which transformed Earth's climate into a "hot house" with 12 degrees higher Global Mean Surface Temperature (GMST) than now, at 52,000,000 years ago, then India was slowly shoving up the Himalayan mountains & Tibetan Plateau for millions of years (it still is) and the added rock weathering helped to take out atmospheric CO2 for 47,000,000 years until it had dropped all the way from 1,000-1,800 ppmv to 280 ppmv when it was cold enough for orbital & tilt cycles to trigger the glaciation period "Ice Ages" there's been for the last 5,000,000 years. Fun stuff.

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    Fred Schomberg

    I DONT THINK ANYBODY WILL READ MY COMMENTS,THEY ARE NOT BASED ON ANY KIND OF CONSPIRACY THEORY. I  WAS WORKING FOR THE NATIONAL  WEATHER BUREAU  I HAD TO DRAW WEATHER MAPS  FOR THE PUBLIC…  I  WORKED WITH A MR.  CHARLIE NUTSON  METEOROLOGIST.I SAW  AMERICAS METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY  AND AMERICAS MILITARY  EXPLODE 2 HYDROGEN BOMBS IN THE MAGNETOSPHERE OF OUR PLANET WITHIN THE SAME SECOND. THESE TWO BOMB TESTS WERE CONDUCTED IN AREAS OF OUR  PLANET THAT WERE FAR AWAY FROM  ANY  POPULATED AREAS.  ONE EXPLOSION WAS  IN ANTARTICA THE OTHER TEST WAS  IN THE NORTH  POLE THE TESTS WERE FOR ELECRRO MAGNETIC PULSE, WEAPONS OF WAR. THE RESULT OFTHE  2 HYDROGEN BOMB TESTS WITHIN THE SAME SECOND OF EACH OTHER BLEW .HOLES  INTOTHE  MAGNETIC FIELD OF THE EARTH . THIS IS WHAT  IS  CAUSING  GLOBAL WARMING, THAT IS NOW CAUSING  THE ICE FIELDS  AROUND OUR PLANET TO MELT. THE DIRECT HEAT FROM THE SUN NOW      HAS A POINT OF ENTRY THROUGH  THE HOLES OR MILITARY BLEW INTO OUR  PROTECTIVE SHIELD ATMOSPHERE.  JESSIE VENTORA HAD A PROGRAM CALLED CONSPIRACY THEORY, EVEN HE HAD NO IDEA WHY THE OCEANS ARE WARMING UP   OR THE ICE FIELDS ARE MELTING.   I SAW THE ROSS  ICE FIELD SEPARATE FROM  THE ANTARTICA CONTINENT DUE TO THE TREMENDOUS HEAT FROM THE SUN PENETRATING TO THE EARTH.  ACCORDIN TO JESSIE VENTURA, THE HOLEE IN THE MAGNETOSFIELD OFTHE EARTH START OVER ABTARTICA, AND ARE NOW UP TO THE EQUATOR,   THIS IS NO JOKING MATTER !

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    Alan Charlton

    I often wonder why the creators of most, if not all documentaries, insist on some inaccurate information as well as omitting some critical to more truthful reporting.
    1/. The Earth was much smaller & with much less water when the first plants, insects & animals appeared. Initial growth in diameter & water was primarily from meteorites, small comets & asteroids, although large asteroids such as the one in Central Australia known as Uluru (Ayres Rock), which has at least 2/3 below the ground, have made larger contributions.
    2/. The tectonic & volcanic plates are the result of a major collision in the Pacific Ocean region, which also caused the Earth to be tilted.
    Each time the planets dominate the same side of the Sun, such as currently, the slippage of the Tectonic Plates slows while the Volcanic activity greatly increases. This includes the Antarctic Region which has at least one Super Volcano heating the ice above it.
    Also the Pacific Ocean volcanic rift has increased its rate of expansion. It is where the newest & most abundant land mass is being formed, albeit deep below where no man has gone before.
    3/. Fossil Fuels emit very little CO2, required by plants along with water & sunlight. They do emit CO, poisonous to all life.
    In reality, the biggest danger to the planet from Greenhouse Gasses are Humans, who continue to clear rainforests & wetlands for industrial, residential & commercial development, obviously expecting farms & rainforests to proliferate in the deserts of the world.
    4/. A partial solution to the problems Humans have created is for us to excavate suitable areas of the deserts in order to live, & to some extent work, underground where the temperature would be stable. Above ground could be used for heavy industrial as well as solar power stations. Wind turbines could be used to pump water from dams as well as air in to the underground cities while other wind turbines pump the waste air, water & sewage above, the latter 2 along with solid food waste sent to designated areas in the hope some of the desert may become an oasis. Once such works are completed then would be the task of returning parts of the urban centres back to the rainforests they once were, while other parts used to grow the food we will need to survive.

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    Tim Wild

    I love pseudoscience and flat earth arguments. Like the earth atmosphere having only 4/10s of one percent of carbon dioxide. What about the other 99.6 percent. It's the SUN. And the variable amount of energy it puts out. That's the main driver of the climate!…..

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    Jeffrey Sonders

    If we don't continue to heat the planet we will slide into an ice age pretty fast. I will take the heat over cold any day. The secret program of "Weather Modification" being done now to heat the planet is not sustainable and the atmospheric pollution is not worth it. Anyone see any stars lately and where are the blue skies we once had? Dont we deserve a real planet and not the synthetic pos they are creating now?
    BTW, Antarctica is gaining ice while the Arctic is losing ice but overall, Earth is losing ice for now, even though the geological trend is towards a new ice age. At least this video shows the dynamic processes at work. Pay Al Gore on the way out please.

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    BLAZENYCBLACKOPS

    We need to start moving our costal cities inland if the ice continues to melt and the sea levels continue to rise, there’s really no other way around it. We need to be proactive about it instead of reactive because if we don’t get out ahead of this trend then by waiting too long we’ll be wasting our time trying to save something that can’t be saved. We can’t ever abandon living on the costal areas of land but serious measures will have to be taken to properly monitor the changes that areas like Antarctica and the Arctic are experiencing in order to continue living on the cost, cities will have to be reconstructed with rising sea levels in mind.

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    ShadowFaing

    Antarctica a land full of ice 7000 rivers and several lakes these Rivers flo in to, ice building on the right side and Ice melting on the left side…a land witch started a little more then normal melt acceleration…after the Sumatra earthquake that destroys millions of lives and left hundreds of thousands dead and shifting the world by 3 degrees why don't they add this in there equation or always leave 1 part of the equation out? Fear. There is more oxygen in the ice then there is even carbon dioxide why? Carbon dioxide melts ice…

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    Brian

    Rising sea levels,, well the Maldives are booming,,, Anarctica is gaining ice,,,Giss cant be trusted,,, The whole climate thing is a political mess, And it sure isn`t man made change , not 0.03% c02 to 0.04% co2. that must be the biggest joke in the political history of the modern world,

    ice cores show that temperature follows warming, it has never lead warming,
    Nasa, Giss fudge data on a regular base nowadays,, lower the past temps and lift the present,,

    Nasa and the worlds top scientists warned of the coming ice age in the 70´s and in the 30`s top climate scientists said the arctic could be ice free within 10 years,

    Science is now a political movement and no one should even question anything,

    The earth maybe is 1degree warmer from 1900 or maybe not,,All US stats say that the US is in a cooling period, Freezing winters and tons of snow still in the mountains,

    A lot of BS out there, Chech out Tony Heller for whats really going on,,

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    Ed Parachini

    To bad this is all hype and lies, they start out by showing the antarctic during the winter then show the loss of ice in the summer, compare apples to apples. Climate scientists are nothing but greedy politicos nothing more. no honor.

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    An Archy

    Natural climate change associated with the grand solar minimum mini ice age of the 1600's has returned for its 400 year cycle, expect radical weather, meridional jet stream flow, record snowfalls, glacial growth, Polar Bear population booms, falling sea levels, blooming deserts, galactic influences, cosmic rays, wandering magnetic poles, volcanic uptick, earthquakes, mud floods and associated catastrophes with famine from crop failures leading to peak food shock and real climate migration, which has NOTHING to do with the man-made co2 global warming climate change myth. See ice age farmer, ice age now, adapt 2030, John Casey, Tony Heller, Piers Corbyn, grand solar minimum news, etc.

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    Peter Staples

    So what the scientist are saying the sun's insolation varies 0.7 watts per Sq. metre in 50, 000 year caused by the Milankovitch cycle then when C02 keeps rising for 800 years after the peak of the interglacials why can it not over ride this small change in insolation for 800 years = <0.00035watts per sq. metre insolation change while C02 reaches maximum PPM 800 years later? so it seems that C02 has a very weak effect on temperature.

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    B R Pawan Kumar Iyengar

    Another bag of lies ….. do your research the area of sea around Antarctica is increasing. Climate change is a hoax and a scam.

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    Ousballa Jobe

    Mankind is very tiny and powerless yet he brags about been in control of the Earth and still trying to colonize space. But this video will humble those arrogant and and ignorants

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    WhimpyPatrol

    Am I to understand that Theropods had meters and that we're now measuring everything from their perspective instead of the human perspective which is feet?  Maybe that's why scientists aren't the world changers that engineers and workers are who have to do things in "steps" — step 1, step 2, step 3, …

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    Larry Farris

    Bulshit it's a plan of the globalist to charge us a tax for the air we breathe global warming is a natural effect and it comes from the sun

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    Daniel Leca

    Put it simply…. We are pretty much fucked unless we deploy gen IV molten salt nuclear fission reactors on a massive scale and ditch fossil fuels, at least for ground transportation at first

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    Hans Janetzke

    thre is an error in data co² concentration in air is follow the warming and cooling with an
    delay of more than 100 years hence co² has nothing to do with climate
    co² is now simple a new religion based on false data get real stop
    this nonsense to blame co² this nonsense must be in the interest of
    somebody or we are all fools we do need independent scientists to get
    real data and have an discussion about the changes on our planet
    religioes dumbing is not helping how many talents are lost with
    keeping busy on virtually nothing we need all on board to solve
    present and future real problems

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    comfortouch

    Summary: "The East Antarctic ice sheets are in balance. However, there's a volcano rising from the deep under the Western Antarctic ice sheets causing melting from the underside. …But let's claim that the melting is from human activity because that's what the environmental alarmists that are paying us want to hear"

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    Gary Boulding

    The chemistry of the rocks in Antarctica is similar to rocks in North America. Antarctica was joined with North America at one time; probably when Pangea existed and later.

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    Gary Boulding

    Wooly mammoth, mastodon, dinosaurs, and semi tropical vegetation, have been found in the massive ice sheath covering the Continent of Antarctic. Crustal displacement has moved the Continent to it's present location.

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    ULTRA TEN

    if antartica were the size of greenland which it isnt then we'd be fine if that melted but its not its actually so big it dwarfs the rest of the planet. which is also a fraud because earth is flat so antartica encircles the whole thing and greenland is the center of the map. People if the outer ring melts we are bad screwed. WORD

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    Eric Wolf

    Just reported last year Antarctica ice increases at an alarming rate triple the normal.. And a new record low of -144° below zero.. Why ??

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    angela taylor

    I thought i had already subscribed to this channel a while back, but i guess i didn't, and when i didn't see you in my timeline, i kinda just forgot about you till this morning. Love, love, love your work. I'm going on a binge.

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    Robert Findlay

    252Ma meteorite leads to Permian extinction. Antarctica splits from Gondwana at130Ma. That is 120 million years later than the East Antarctic meteorite. It is hard to see how the two could be related as is proposed in this otherwise excellent video.

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    Artur Rivunov

    11.40 minutes. . . . .the earth has been getting closer to the sun. . . that is what any galaxy goes through. . . .eventually, the planet will be mars. . . . . so leave a few messages on that planet for the future.

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    Artur Rivunov

    remember. . . . humans are like ants on this planet. . . .no amount of years being here can do as much damage as getting closer to the sun.

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    Artur Rivunov

    18.25th minute. . . .water moving under the ice. . . .on a bigger scale the sun getting closer would make that happen. . . .

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    kilmorecombine0

    It's ashame that the way to help the earth, is by killing feminism. And nobody wants to take action.

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    David Rethmeyer

    What makes you think it was millions of years ago it was more like 6 to 12 thousand years ago it was covered in lush green

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    Joe Perry

    More people making shit up, I question anybody that says something happened 300 million years ago. That is a very long length of time………..you don't know……….you are either guessing or making it up as you go. Stop trying to teach this stuff as fact, it's NOT! The stuff that I was taught in school in the 60s isn't even true anymore, I miss my old solar system.

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    gemstarstation

    Earth will evolve just as it has done over billions of years. Nothing we can do except accept fate as it comes

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    Gregg Weber

    At about 6:00 this reminded me of a Lava Lamp but I wish I could see all of it instead of just one Hemisphere. Maybe translucent Green for this side so one could see the Red on the back side?

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    Gregg Weber

    At 6:45 if Australia was pushed by the impact away from Antarctica then why is it moving soo fast? Was there an (Lava Lamp) upwelling from below which is mainly pushing them apart?

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    Walter Wendner

    Wirtschaft vor Umwelt à la Jair Bolsonaro und Sebastian Kurz wird die Gletscher nicht retten 😕 😕 😕 😕 😕!

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    guy tremblay

    1998 : Mankind-haters Blame mankind for the acceleration of the melting of antartica
    2014 : Scientists disvover magma activity under the antartique ice sheet that causes the antartic ice shit melt to accelerate

    2005 : Mankind-haters blame mankind specificly the Clovus People for the extinction of the Mega Fauna 12,000 years ago
    2017 : Scientists discover an asteroid impact in Greenland dating from 12,000 years ago that would have devestated half of the continent of america and render the entire continent unlivable for all the species specially the Mega-Fauna due to climate changes caused by the impact .

    So whats up next that will make the mankind-haters look like idiots once more ?

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    Steve Strickland

    this is great news… all those snotty nosed rich kids would have to move back to the gettos and the rest of us get bigger beaches

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    Chadly Fox

    This video gives me an idea!!🤔💡.. "SNOW CONE" business for all the visitor's to the loneliest continent in the world.🌨️📣4️⃣ Lℹ️f📧.. Haha…

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