Cosmic Journeys – Hubble: Universe in Motion

Cosmic Journeys – Hubble: Universe in Motion


Not since Galileo invented the telescope,
over 400 years ago, has our view of the universe been so transformed. In April 1990, astronauts stationed the Hubble
Space Telescope in orbit… above the blurring effects of Earth’s atmosphere. It returned scenes of unprecedented beauty. As well as clear, sharp images of a dynamic,
changing universe. Stars… Planets… Galaxies… each evolving in time, from birth…
to dissipation… and death. This portrait of a Universe in Motion… is
Hubble’s enduring legacy. The Hubble Space Telescope is now regarded
as one of most revolutionary scientific instruments ever built. While not the only telescope launched into
orbit, it has surely been the most versatile. Spacewalking astronauts returned four times
to upgrade its instruments to newer and more powerful technologies. As a result, Hubble has been able to probe
the life cycle of stars, from their birth in nurseries of dust-laden clouds of gas… All the way to their final farewell: as delicate
nebulae, slowly blown into space… or as titanic supernova explosions that outshine
their host galaxies. Hubble has peered into the breeding grounds
of new solar systems: dusty discs around newborn stars that may condense into planets. And it has transported us into the billions
of galaxies that spread out across the depths of time and space. One of the most photogenic galaxies is a grand
spiral called M74, located about 32 million light years from Earth. Amateur astronomers have long known it as
the “phantom galaxy,” because of its low surface brightness. Hubble astronomers, on the other hand, saw
spiral arms laced with delicate tendrils of dust silhouetted against bright ribbons of
stars. These spiral arms are not like spokes on a
wheel. They are density waves that move around the galaxy compressing gas… and stimulating
the birth of vast waves of new stars. Using Hubble, astronomers are uncovering fascinating
details within galaxies they once considered featureless and bland. NGC 1132 is an immense ball of stars some
320 million light years away. Astronomers have concluded that this giant
is the product of a gravitational feeding frenzy. Hubble showed that its surroundings are dotted
with dense clusters of stars. They are what’s left of galaxies that were swallowed by 1132. How galaxies grow and evolve over time is
an enduring mystery that Hubble astronomers have sought to unravel. The first galaxies are thought to have formed
out of clumps of gas in the early Universe. These proto-galaxies came together to form
larger and larger galaxies. Such galactic mergers may play out over hundreds
of millions of years. Hubble has shown that it is an elegant waltz of stars and gas…
choreographed by gravity on a grand cosmic stage. As the galaxies pass each other, their gravity
pulls stars and gas into the space between them, building vast luminous bridges stretching
tens of thousands of light years. As the galaxies fall together again, long
streams of gas and dust, known as tidal tails, wrap around their disrupted shapes. As the galaxy cores approach each other, the
gas and dust clouds that envelop them can be dramatically accelerated. This results
in shockwaves that ripple through interstellar clouds…. Setting off bursts of star formation
that appear as brilliant blue knots. Gravity is not the only force that can tear
a galaxy apart. Hubble spotted a spiral galaxy plowing through
a cluster of galaxies. There, it is has encountered a vast cloud of superheated gas. Drag from this cloud is stripping away gas
from the galaxy, creating tattered threads and blue tendrils. It’s also pulling away streams of murky
dust, as shown by the dark brown tangled region around the galaxy’s center. When Hubble observations are combined with
X-ray images, a bright, extended fog can be seen enveloping the galaxy and streaming off
into space. In the end, this encounter will leave the
galaxy with very little gas, and almost no chance of forming any new stars. Galaxy collisions are not always destructive.
Take the case of Centaurus A, 32 million light years from Earth. Shockwaves produced by a collision have sparked
an intense round of star formation, as seen in the red patches visible here. There is something else about Centaurus A
that stands out. Using radio and x-ray telescopes, astronomers have spotted powerful jets blasting
out of its center… and broad plumes of matter racing far beyond the galaxy. Where is all that energy coming from? Answering
that question has become a major focus of Hubble observations since the day it was launched. Astronomers had long noticed that the centers
of large galaxies are unusually bright. They speculated that there must be some kind of
massive object lurking there. Could these objects be dense collections of
stars? Or are they a breed of supermassive black holes, millions or even billions of
times the mass of our sun? Hubble’s search for the answer began in
the center of a giant nearby galaxy, M87. Astronomers saw that its color was not quite
the same on both sides. One side was shifted towards blue and the other towards red, a
hint that it must be rotating very quickly. This is because the wavelength of light is
changed by the motion of whatever is emitting it. This is also known as the Doppler effect. Think about how the pitch of a train whistle
drops as it races past. Similarly, if something in space is moving
towards you, the wavelength of its light gets squashed, making it appear bluer. If the object
is moving away, its light gets stretched, making it redder. By measuring how much the colors had shifted
from one side of the disk to the other, astronomers were able to determine its speed of rotation.
It turned out that this disk was spinning at a rate of hundreds of kilometers per second. Astronomers concluded that an object must
be lurking in its center that’s at least 4 billion times the mass of our Sun – a
supermassive black hole. This was a key piece of evidence in the discovery
that supermassive black holes occupy the centers of most, if not all, large galaxies, including
our own Milky Way. Back in the early 20th century, the young
astronomer Edwin Hubble joined a larger quest to understand the scales of time and distance
that define our universe. To make his measurements, he observed stars
in the nearby Andromeda galaxy, just 2.5 million light years away. His namesake, the Hubble Space Telescope,
has extended those measurements to the far limits of time and space. In its legendary Deep Field images, Hubble
stared into seemingly blank regions of sky, revealing thousands of faint galaxies from
the early days of the universe. These blotchy collections of stars are infant
galaxies. Over the 10 billion years their light has traveled to reach us, some may have
evolved into galaxies that resemble our own… With a supermassive black hole in its center…
spiral arms… exploding stars… solar systems… planets… and perhaps even life. Hubble has shown that our Milky Way galaxy
is a dynamic cosmic laboratory. Some of its most striking and beautiful images
are giant structures known as nebulae. This one is nicknamed Horsehead, after its
clear and curiously familiar shape. Rising from a sea of gas and dust, this so-called
dark nebula is a cold, dark, dusty cloud set against a background of glowing gas. Then there’s the famed Eagle Nebula, nicknamed
the Pillars of Creation. A group of hot young stars is scouring these luminous towers with
fierce winds of energetic particles. Dense pockets of gas resist these winds. Within
them, are cocoons of gas and dust, where new stars are being born. You can see the same process underway in the
Monkeyhead Nebula, about 6400 light-years away in the constellation of Orion. The Monkeyhead is a stellar nursery with all
the ingredients needed for star formation. Its peaceful beauty masks the violent events
within it. In places where stars are able to form at
high rates, Hubble astronomers have zeroed in on the moment of birth. One team has been collecting high-resolution
Hubble images of energetic jets of matter being shot from newborn stars. Unlike most astronomical phenomena, which
can appear motionless over centuries of time, these jets visibly change on human timescales. Using Hubble, astronomers can see knots of
gas brightening and dimming. This shows that these jets are not being launched in a steady
stream. Rather, they are racing out sporadically in
clumps. The irregular structure of these jets is likely caused by material that periodically
falls onto an infant star. This image shows how violent the end stages
of star formation can be. In the constellation of Cygnus, a few thousand
light-years away, lies a compact star-forming region called S106. The beautiful colors of this nebula mask the
violent events taking place within. A young star, named S106 IR, is being born
at the heart of the nebula. In the final stages of its formation, the star is ejecting material
at high speed, disrupting surrounding clouds of gas and dust. 3D visualizations show the extent to which
the star has carved its surroundings into a complex shape, including hollow cavities. At the outer edges of these cavities, the
gas has been compressed into shock fronts. The material spewing off the star not only
gives the cloud its hourglass shape, it is heating it up to temperatures of 10,000 degrees
Celsius. The star’s radiation excites the gas, making
it glow like a fluorescent light bulb. A star is born when pressure and heat in its
core causes hydrogen gas to undergo nuclear fusion. The heat generated by this process
pushes outward… countering the inward pull of gravity. From the violence of their birth, most stars
spend their lives shining in relative peace, gradually using up the hydrogen fuel that
makes up their cores. Smaller, cooler stars are incredibly efficient.
A red dwarf, with 10% the mass of our sun, can burn for ten trillion years… almost
a thousand times the current age of the universe. By comparison, larger, hotter stars like our
sun burn more quickly. At about 5 billion years old, our own sun has gone through half
its expected lifespan. By observing stars similar to the Sun, scientists
now have a good idea of what will happen to our Solar System in the distant future. The sun will grow steadily hotter… causing
it to swell into a so-called red giant. When the Sun does this, it will destroy the inner
planets of the Solar System. Next, the outer layers will puff out, forming
a dense cloud of gas and dust that will obscure the visible light from the star. In this stage, it forms a proto-planetary
nebula. Only dim infrared emissions from the dust cloud and reflected starlight let astronomers
see anything at all. Hubble images of this stage show a wide variety
of shapes, hinting at the complex dynamics at work inside. The spiral structure of this nebula is particularly
unusual, and is likely due to a second orbiting star that is producing swirling patterns in
the gas and dust. Over a period of a few thousand years, radiation
from the hot remains of the star excites the gas in the nebula, causing it to glow. The once faint nebula now becomes a bright
and mysterious cloud called a planetary nebula. This type of nebula populates our galaxy…
with luminous shapes that draw the gaze of many a sky watcher. Eventually, planetary nebulae fade to nothing
as their gas and dust diffuse into space. All that remains is the tiny white dwarf — a
form that our Sun will take billions of years from now. Planetary nebulae are more than just beautiful
shapes that grace our galactic skies. They show important stages in the life cycle
of stars… and how they interact with and even shape their surroundings. Hubble has given astronomers the sharpest
views yet of these ghostly, dynamic structures. Take the Ring Nebula, just over 2,000 light
years away from Earth. From Earth’s perspective, it looks like
a simple elliptical body with a fuzzy boundary. But Hubble observations show that the nebula
is shaped more like a distorted doughnut. The doughnut hole may look empty, but it is
full of lower density gas that stretches toward and away from us, creating a shape a little
like a rugby ball that’s been slotted into the doughnut’s hole. The space surrounding the nebula is turbulent
and full of knotty structures that formed long ago. If we were able to rotate the Ring Nebula
by 90 degrees and view it side on, it would look more like the nebula M76, also known
as the “Little Dumbbell.” In the act of dying, sun-like stars cast most
of their mass out into the galactic winds. In time, the atoms in our own sun may well
be swept up into new suns, new solar systems. In the cycles of star birth and star death,
the galaxy is dominated by a rare and extremely violent breed. Stars ten times the mass of our sun, and even
larger, burn hot and fast. Intense temperatures and pressure ignite nuclear
fusion reactions in their cores. Hydrogen gas turns to helium, oxygen, carbon, calcium,
silicon… all the way to iron. The outward pressure from heat radiating from
the star’s core is no longer enough to hold it up under the crushing weight of these elements. Gravity wins the battle… and the star’s
core collapses inward. That produces a shock wave that races out
through the star’s volume and obliterates it. Of the 200 million odd stars in our galaxy,
one goes supernova about every century or so. The last one to be seen in the Milky Way was
observed by the astronomer Johannes Kepler in 1604, just five years before the invention
of the telescope. The most famous supernova in recent years
appeared in 1987 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a dwarf galaxy just above the plane of the
Milky Way. It was so bright it was visible to the naked
eye. Launched three years later, Hubble has been tracking the evolving spectacle for over
a quarter of a century. Astronomers have marveled at the complexity
of the explosion, including the patterns etched by its expanding shock wave. Even though a supernova is only bright for
a short period of time, the dusty clouds it leaves behind can last for millennia. Their
effect on the surrounding interstellar gas lasts even longer. Although no supernova in our galaxy has ever
been observed with a telescope, plenty of supernova remnants have been. Hubble’s sharp
images of their complex structures help explain the sequence of events… as well as the profound
impact these explosions have on the galaxy. Take the Crab supernova, one of the most interesting,
and most studied, objects in all of astronomy. Japanese and Chinese astronomers witnessed
the explosion in the year 1054. The
filaments shown in these images are the tattered
remains of the star, consisting mostly of hydrogen. The collapsed core of the star embedded
in the center is barely visible in this Hubble image. Yet you can see its effects. The bluish glow
comes from electrons whirling at nearly the speed of light around magnetic field lines
that extend from the star’s collapsed core. Astronomers have been poring over the nebula
itself, still growing at a rate of a thousand kilometers a second. What they’ve found is that the filaments
of matter that roared out of the blast contain large volumes of dust, an array of mostly
carbon or silicate compounds that absorb visible light. These solid particles are crucial for the
formation of solar systems. Within the Crab nebula, there is enough dust to make 30-40,000
Earths. Galaxies all around the universe bear witness
to the dusty legacy of countless supernovae. The bright central region of the famous pinwheel
galaxy, for example, is surrounded by dark, dusty lanes. In spiral galaxies, hot winds from exploding
stars have helped push these clouds toward the periphery as well as above and below their
flat discs. You can see evidence of this in our view of
the Milky Way galaxy. Dark dust lanes and ominous clouds dominate our view into the
disc, while tendrils of dust reach far above it. Some dust clouds are destined to light up
with new stars, as you can see in one of the Milky Way’s small companion galaxies: The
Large Magellanic Cloud. Its most dramatic feature is the Tarantula
Nebula, a bright region of glowing gas and energetic star formation. The Tarantula, shown in a these Hubble images,
glows brightly because hydrogen gas within it is being excited by ultraviolet radiation
from newborn stars. In a wider view, the luminous Tarantula Nebula
stands out from its host galaxy. It is the brightest known star-forming region in the
local Universe and one of the most attractive spots in the night sky. Thanks to Hubble, there is a place within
our own galaxy where you can see not only stars, but solar systems, being born. In the constellation of Orion the Hunter,
just under the three stars that make up its belt, is the majestic Orion Nebula. It draws our attention for its beauty and
mystery. Ancient civilizations saw meaning as well, including the Maya in what is now
southern Mexico and northern Central America. In their story of creation, three of the brightest
stars in the Orion constellation represented a hearth. The nebula was the fire that warms
it. At 1,500 light years distance, it’s one
of the best-known examples of a star-forming nebula – a swirling cloud of gas and dust
where stars begin their journey of life. Within it, Hubble astronomers discovered isolated
pockets of gas called proplyds. These are protoplanetary discs that form around newborn
stars in spinning mixtures of gas and dust. These discs are now thought to be planetary
systems in the making. The brightest star in the Trapezium star cluster
affects the nearby discs by heating up the gas within them, causing them to shine brightly.
The excited material produces many glowing cusps that face the bright star. Other interesting features enhance the look
of these captivating objects, including jets and dramatic shock waves. They are formed
when the stellar wind from the nearby massive star meets gas in the nebula. The interaction produces shapes like boomerangs
or arrows. In one case, the shock wave makes the proplyd look like a space jellyfish. The powerful radiation that allows us to see
these shapes also threatens their existence. Once heated up, the discs are more likely
to dissipate and dissolve, destroying their potential to spawn planets. Some of the bright proplyds are doomed to
be torn apart. The dimmer ones are the most likely to survive. Among those that do produce solar systems,
Hubble has been documenting a wide diversity of planets. One of them, known as HD189733b, is a huge
gas giant similar to Jupiter. It lies extremely close to its star, as shown in this animation. Proximity to the star makes its climate exceptionally
hot, with temperatures exceeding 1000oC. A team of scientists used Hubble to observe
it as it passed in front of its parent star. While backlit in this way, a planet’s atmosphere
imprints its signature on the starlight, allowing astronomers to decode what is happening on
scales far too small to image directly. They expected to confirm that the upper layers
of the planet’s atmosphere are boiling off under the intense starlight. Hubble’s first observations showed no trace
of this. Just before it could take a second look, the
Swift satellite detected a huge flare coming from the surface of the star, with powerful
atmosphere-frying X-rays. When the planet slid into view a few hours
later, the changes were startling. Where astronomers had seen a slumbering planet before, now they
saw an atmosphere furiously boiling away. In a dramatic plume of gas, the planet was
losing at least 1000 tons of gas from its atmosphere every second. There’s no life on a planet that orbits
so close to its parent star. Such planets, however, are allowing Hubble
astronomers to hone their search for Earth-like planets further out. When the planet moves between the star and
Earth, Hubble has been able to capture a small fraction of starlight passing through the
planet’s atmosphere. Astronomers are looking for a hydrogen-carbon
compound called Methane. On Earth, it’s produced by a combination of natural and manmade
sources, including fossil fuel production. On this “hot jupiter,” methane is probably
produced by a complex chemical process in its atmosphere. Astronomers plan to use data to identify prebiotic
molecules in the atmospheres of planets in the “habitable zones” around other stars,
where more moderate temperatures would allow liquid water to flow. The new measurements are an important step
toward the ultimate goal of identifying the conditions, such as temperature, pressure,
winds, clouds, and chemistry on planets where life could exist. Astronomers have detected a wide range of
planets around other stars by looking for clues, like the wobbling motion of a star
as a planet orbits it, or a star getting dimmer as a planet passes in front of it. Hubble was able to capture, for the first
time, a direct image of a planet. Visible from the southern hemisphere, Fomalhaut
is relatively close, at around 25 light-years away. It is 15 times brighter than the sun, and
much hotter. This star is blazing through its hydrogen fuel supply at such a furious
rate that it will burn out in only a billion years, 10% of the lifespan of our star. Its most interesting feature may be a large
disk of dust and gas that surrounds it. This strange ring is not exactly centered
on the star. Astronomers suspect that the gravity of another body — perhaps a planet
— is pulling it out of shape. The suspected planet is a dim speck. To see
it, astronomers used an instrument called a coronagraph to block the star’s light. Then they gathered a host of clues to find
out what it’s like. For one, the shape of the disk hints that
the planet is at most three times the mass of Jupiter. For another, the planet is much brighter than
expected for an object of its size. That means it could have an enormous ring system that
reflects starlight in all directions. One day the material in these rings may even coalesce
to form moons. Hubble is part of a larger quest to discover
and understand solar systems, including our own. Among the highlights, astronomers have used
Hubble to track the changing climate of cloudy Venus. Dust storms that sweep across the planet Mars. The aftermath of comet Shoemaker-Levy’s
collision with Jupiter. Saturn’s stunning rings, and moons. Uranus’ rings. And Neptune’s intense, turbulent atmosphere. In our solar system, few Hubble images compare
to its views of Saturn… And the fluttering aurorae that light up its
poles. Scientists created a movie from data collected
over several days during January and March 2009, when the rings appeared edge-on, and
both poles were visible to us. The Sun emits a wind of particles that reaches
all parts of the Solar System. When this electrically charged stream gets close to a planet with
a magnetic field, like Saturn or the Earth, the field traps these particles. The magnetic field is stronger at the poles,
so the particles tend to concentrate there, where they interact with atoms in the upper
layers of the atmosphere. That’s what creates the familiar nighttime glow we know as the
northern and southern lights. Saturn’s auroras are not only charming features,
but they might teach us something about our own planet and its magnetic field. Beyond Saturn’s dancing lights… or the
sudden explosion of a star… the universe appears unmoving against the ponderous march
of cosmic time. Among its greatest achievements, the Hubble
Space Telescope has been able to track the large-scale motions of the universe. Take an event close to home. Astronomers have
long known that the Andromeda Galaxy, currently 2.5 million light-years away, is moving toward
our Milky Way. A team of astronomers used the Hubble Space
Telescope to find out how fast the two galaxies are moving, and whether there will be head
on collision. They tracked the motion of stars in Andromeda…
then projected their movement into the future. Based on these findings, they showed the course
of events over the next eight billion years, as the galaxies move closer… …then collide… and gradually merge into
a new larger galaxy. If you could wait a few billion years, our
night sky would change dramatically. As Andromeda approaches, it will loom large
in the sky. Later, when the galaxies begin to merge, they
will twist and distort under the pull of their mutual gravity. In time, the new combined galaxy will become
an immense ball of stars… what’s known as an elliptical galaxy. Even though these two galaxies each have hundreds
of billions of stars in them, the stars are all relatively far apart. The chance of any
two colliding is extremely small. Our Sun, born in the Milky Way almost 5 billion
years ago, will follow a new path as it orbits a whole new galaxy. In the universe according to Hubble, galaxies
all around across the cosmos are circling each other… merging… and moving into ever-larger
and denser groupings. Using Hubble to survey patterns of galaxies,
scientists have been able to map a mysterious substance that envelops galaxies and clusters
of galaxies. This so-called “dark matter” adds to the
gravity of these structures and has been driving their collapse over time. Because of the arrangement of galaxies, Astronomers
have long known that dark matter stretches out across the cosmos in a vast web-like structure.
Actually observing this web has been difficult. Now, a team of scientists has used Hubble
to make detailed observations of a dark matter filament, measuring its length, shape and
density. Theories say galaxy clusters form where filaments
of the cosmic web meet. So the team focused Hubble on one such cluster with a stream of
galaxies moving into it along several filaments. The astronomers used data from several ground
telescopes to measure distances to the galaxies within the filament mapped by Hubble, and
to trace their motions. In so doing, they made the first ever three-dimensional
reconstruction of a filament. It extends across at least 60 million light-years
of space. From our perspective, we see it gently curving towards us, then continuing
almost along our line of sight, before it plunges into the back of the galaxy cluster. Observing and reconstructing the cosmic web
can tell us how the universe has evolved to date. Scientists wanted to know how it’s
evolving on an even grander scale. If dark matter dominates the cosmos, will
its gravity be enough to cause the universe itself to crash together in a heap at some
point in the distant future? To find out, they searched for a type of exploding
star that’s visible across the cosmos. It is the product of a small burned out star
called a white dwarf that orbits a larger star. The smaller star pulls matter from its neighbor,
thereby gradually increasing its mass. Finally, when it reaches a critical mass,
it undergoes a thermonuclear explosion. These so-called Type 1A explosions are thought
to all have the same intrinsic brightness. How bright they appear to us is a measure
of how far away they are. What the scientists found is that the most
distant of the explosions were much fainter than they expected. They deduced from this
data that the space between Earth and those distant explosions had been expanding faster
and faster. Scientists theorized that another unknown
force, dark energy, is actually pushing the universe apart at an accelerating rate. This means that the universe will not collapse
in a heap. Rather, it will keep on expanding forever…. Until all matter and energy eventually
dissipate to nothingness. In our time, the light of the universe continues
to rain down on Earth in torrents, a measure of the energy emitted in a constant process
of creation and destruction. Hubble has led a broad effort to capture this
light in telescopes stationed both on mountaintops and in space. Through their lenses, we have seen a universe
that is evolving on all time scales, from the very short to the very long. In its own brief time in space, Hubble has
revolutionized the science of astronomy… while inspiring untold legions of stargazers.

Comments

  1. Post
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    SpaceRip

    Hey everyone, if you like this video you should check out more space and science videos in 4k at https://magellan.tv/space

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    John mpjkken

    Some of these videos miss a lot of basic requisites in the formation of stars as well as other bodies in our universe. Number one is stars first form from the infinate derivatives and magnetic forces of Electromagnetic Energy. They dont initially begin with gases or dust.
    First, the iron core is forming due to the assimilation of metals to magnetism an only then the various gases, dusts including carbon, sulphur etc. (which are also initially created from EM ENERGY) are continually pulled in and added to the growth of the star. Don't forget that all these materials are initially formed at the sub-atomic and molecular level with Nutrinos as the stepping stone to creating all matter. By heat and pressure, the star will eventually reach its point of fusion and a new star is then born. Only then the EM Gravitational field effected by the star, will attract more gasses and matter within it's gravitational field to form planets.
    I believe creation never had a start but is eternal through the creation of Black Holes formed when a hugh star reaches its maximum pressure and heat, then explodes creating the BH VORTEX opening to another or new dimension where this process repeates itself but in the opposite electrical charge as it passes to another dimension. This is a requisite in the switch of dimensions.
    Each Galaxy has a humongous Black Hole that is the controlling mechanics of the galaxy by it's hugh gravitational pull of all the stars in the galaxy effecting the circular spinning motion of the galaxy toward the center and BH
    and this process is repeated for eternity.

  12. Post
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    Roberto Adrales

    ang panginoong diyos ang lumikha ng lahat ng nasa langit at lahat ng nsa lupa, at nilikha nya ang lahat ng bagay dahil sa kanyang bugtong na anak ang panginoong hesus na tagapagligtas ng sanlibutan ,at sinumang manalig sa kanyang bugtong na anak ang panginoong hesus ay hindi mapahamak kundi magkaroon ng buhay na walang hanggan.

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    jage

    There One who knows them by number. Even calls each star by name. Due to his dynamic power and energy, not one is missing…Psalms. Our Creator made all this. He deserves our awe and deep respect.

  21. Post
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    KJV 예수쟁이

    (KJV)(Romans 1:19-20) Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed

    it unto them. For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood
    by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse

  22. Post
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    Lucho Delma Otero Duran

    Grand journey of a spaceship away from our convoluted planet. From activity to calmness of non life, to an almost eternal passage of time! Luis R. Otero

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    Tony Barrera

    It is a very good video but it always gets up no 1 by the search engine so i have seen and heard it 1 gazzziollion times now..

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    Za Z

    18:05 ten trillion years for smaller red dwarf stars. And our sun 10 billion years. Wonder how smart a ten trillion year civilization would be?

  29. Post
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    t ems

    Hey all those years and no picture of the earth no camera on the moon 50 million a day of tax payer money how ridiculous

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    18wheeler76

    I loved this cartoon.Not 1 real picture but everyone thinks its real.Shows how brainwashed and brain dead humans are.

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    Simon Hanson

    I so hope we can learn to live in peace with each other and learn to love and respect all life with whom we share this planet so we may continue to evolve to learn evermore about this absolutely totally awesome stupendously beautiful universe.

  35. Post
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    Bill Demich

    CGI and a narrarator does not make this fact.

    If you believe this garbage without asking yourself why, you might be retarded.

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    Jason Falcon

    This puts me to sleep while my brain is still processing the information which causes awesome dreams. It’s amazing what n,a,s,a has done in 1990 and upgraded several times which I can’t wait for the James Webb.

  38. Post
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    Rolando Lopez

    First 5 seconds…"Not since Galileo invented the telescope…" What? I hope the writers of this documentary meant to say "Not since Galileo pointed a telescope to the stars…" The telescope was first patented by a Dutch eyeglass maker named Hans Lippershey (or Lipperhey) in 1608, but it WAS Galileo in 1609 who after creating his own version, first pointed one at the sky and used it for astronomical purposes. I guess Lippershey just used it to spy on people 🙂

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    Guy Person

    Of all the great marvels of creation in the universe, I think Christy Canyon's tits circa 1986 are the most impressive.

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    Robert Harris

    With Galaxy formation and even star formation, it's amazing how professional astronomers are so puzzled while the layman can easily see that it is an electrical phenomenon.

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    Daniel Brown

    These colors have me in complete awe. 😲😮

    How does one wrap their dome around these monstrous processes?!!

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    kanna dassan

    I love Hubble, so I extend my sincere respect to the team which has built it and working on it. It is, at least, fortune to live along with Hubble. This is remarkably encouraging me to go for the quest of life of universe…

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    Robert Harris

    Formation by accretion. LOL! I guess the Earth is flat to right? I believe you're ridiculous theories need to be updated, I will point you to the electric universe. Please educate yourselves before perpetuating the fairytale of your gravity based theory of the cosmos.

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    Robert Harris

    Dark matter, Santa Claus's twin brother. Or maybe the missing links twin brother. They don't exist. Our universe is electrically based. with no need to make up exotic particles and mathematical theories that can only be understood by five people on the planet, conversely the Simplicity of the electric universe theory can be understood by a 5 year old.

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    robert mcminn

    Difficult to discern the CGI from the actual Hubble images in much of this program. But, this has become a usual ism of our astronomic community and NASA. We see only what we are allowed and we are given theory and direction for beliefs and thinking. But, it is highly entertaining and informative nonetheless.

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    19niunius20

    📲*00212645752301* *Whatapps*📲
    ســمــعــت🧏‍♂️ كــثــيــر مــن الــشــبــاب يــبــحــثــون عــن طــريــقــة فـعـالـة✅ لــتــكــبــيــر الــقــضــيــب
    وأنــا أبـشـركـم😉 أنـي حــصــلــت عــلــى الــطــريــقــة الأصـح👍 والــمــنــاســبــة👍 وهــتــشــكــرنــي بــعــديــهــا
    تـواصـل مــعــي وأنــا بـشـرح لــك ســر الـوصـفـة الـواتـس اب *00212645752301*📲

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    Geloof Hoop en Liefde

    How come that objects in space seem to increase distances inbetween them whereas individual galaxies are able to merge?

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    podak10

    Why is Galileo Galilei always called Galileo and not Galilei? Imagine them calling Newton just Isaac or Einstein only Albert.

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    VÍDEOS SUBTITULATS

    Podeu veure aquest vídeo amb subtítols en català a Amara: https://amara.org/ca/videos/pvEP98w0ytfa/info/cosmic-journeys-hubble-universe-in-motion/

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    Johnathon Wheeler

    I loved watching this. I'm so tired of those documentaries with the dorky astronomers swinging a ball around on a chain trying toexplain how an orbit works, like we're a bunch of stupid monkeys. Or when the astronomers pretend to hang out in a bar so they can pretend to be like "us". Not to mention the retarded puns used in "those documentaries"

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    Thom Anderson

    Knowledge of these exotic galaxies w their millions of light years away, is fascinating. But how will answering questions of how they were formed help us here on earth.

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    David Gordon

    ALOHA/DIAS- ( THERE IS ONLY UNO KMR TATS) AN NOTE/ OF RESPEKT PAULETTE AND HER SISTER ETK/ YEARS AGO EL SOBRANTE NORTHERN CALIFORNIA TO HELP/ PRIVI/ INVITED EVENT AN NOTE YOUNG CHILD I / INFAKTUATED ROBIN BROTHER AND CHILD PLASED HIS CLOTHES ON / INFAKTUATED EVERY GIRL CHILD DIFFERENT SO ROBIN CATHIBRET AS EXPRESSED INVITED EVENTS / THOUGH I APOLOGIZE IF TAKEN OUT OF ONTENSE/ THOUGH APOLOGIZE GIRL ROBINS GUY FAMILY MEMBER THOUGH AS EXPRESSED AN CHILD/ THOUGH I DON KNOW IF I EVER SEEN HIM AGAIN/ NO CRUSHES / TO YOUNG/ AND OF RESPEKT I THANK ROBINS FAMILY INVITING THE EVENTS I ALWAYS RESPEKT HONOUR/ HONOR/ (KMR(TATS) MUSHOS GRASIAS/ GRASIAS READING ( ADIOS)/

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    Chris Smith

    Its an irony that even though we come from space we struggle to get back there. This desire humans have to go to space isn't exploration. We want to go home……

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    nije bitno

    My method of falling asleep is watching videos about universe. Usually people are shocked and they ask me how do I know all this things. Lucky guess… 😂

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    Roy Ledford

    Great video but I disagree with quite a few of "settled science's" assumptions and/or conclusions of what Hubble has revealed. BTW–as an aerospace machinist, I built more than one pieces/parts for Hubble for a private company under contract from Hughs Aircraft's Tucson, AZ facility in the late '80's.

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    The Mask

    3min in and not a single image is real. Only the astronauts in low earth orbit might be real. One Image was made up from animals, mostly monkeys. Shove this bullshit right up your arse

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    Steven Robinson

    Something that puzzles me: If a disc has 2 plains (or a top and a bottom), it follows that a black hole could have two event horizons; ergo consuming matter from both plains. It would follow, therefore, that matter collision is a distinct possibility within. Could this not be the source of energy and light. Just askin'. Wafer thin mint, anyone?

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    หนุ่มหลักศิลาใต้ นครพนม

    All shape of clouds and pictures of miracle things in the universe. Create by "God" infinity universe.

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    David Gordon

    NON-RELIGION MIRIAM FREEZE NEW NOMBRES WHAT IS THE MEANING UNLAWFUL MARRIAGE AND MY CHOICE ALREADY SPOKEN FOR FILED DIVORCE YEARS AGO NOT MAD AT DAVID JUST DIFFERENT PERSONALITIES ETK/ THAT NOMBRE KIMBERLY MICHELLE RAMSEY AN BURDEN THATS WHY (TATS) I WOULD HAVE MIDDLE NOMBRE (MARIA)/ NO TIME SLUMBER/ ALL IN THE CHILDS NAMED TO MANY BOOKSZ THERES/Z NO END MUSHOS GRASIAS GRASIAS READING (/ THERE IS ONLY UNO (ME)<>) LUV IS BEAUTIFUL AND ONLY THE STRONG WILL SURVIVE ZILLION THAT IS HOW IT IS AT THIS COUNTRY AMSRICA TOO MANY DEMONSZ AND THEY DON REALIZE THEY RE DEMONSZ THEY RE SUCH BURDEN/ EVERYDAY AT THIS COUNTRY I DID NT CHOOSE AND WON T NEVER EVER SUCH AN WASTE EVREYDAY/ MUSHOAS GRASIAS READING GRASIAS/ THERE IS ONLY(UNO ME) TO EXPRESS THESE HORRID THINGS IS AN BURDEN (TATS)

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    David Gordon

    /A/KIMBERLY M RAMSEY (TATS) EH THOSE BLACCC HOLES STOP THEY FOLLOWING MY FAMALIA EH THEY RE KOMPLETE STRANGERSZ ALL OF WHOM THEY IS/ DON APPRETHIATE SUCH I M NOT DAVID/ DO YOU UNDERSTAND THEY ALL AND DAVID FANTASY LOSERZ SEIZE ALL THEY/ FINAL-

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    Brad Watson

    Planet Nestor is our nextdoor neighbors where humanoids have a nest or base. See my tweaked NASA conference presentation at http://PlanetNestor.blogspot.com .

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    Dion Albers

    Trying to imagine what the James Webb will produce, who is way more powerfull than Hubble!
    Looking forward to it 😊

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    David Gordon

    (ALOHA DIAS SPASE /SPASE THERE IS ONLY UNO ME KIMBERLY M RAMSEY MY FAMALIA IS ONLY TWO/ SIR OR MAAM WERE AT AMERICA SAINT LOUIS MISSOURI CLINTON PEABODY WERE NOT CLINTONSZ ETK/ REALLY WE NEED YOUR HELP EXITING AMERICA THAT DUDE AT THE CROSS AND ALL THE OTHERSZ THEY GUST HARASS OBSSESIVELY AND THEY RE FLUCIES THEY DO NOTHING BUT FALL THIS IS GETTING TO RIDICULOUS IT MAKES NO SENSE IT S OBVIOUS THE CREATOR THAT CREATED THE PLASE EARTH HAS THE MARC OF THE BEAST AS MULTY AT THIS PLASE AMERICA WERE NOT ON STAND- BY/ IT IS WRONG AND WHEN WE LEAVE FOR GOOD NO TURNING BACCC/ AN VOW MY PLEDGE NOW WHEN WE EXIT YOU WILL SEE AS I VE EXPRESSED/ RINGS TRUE DON ALLOW AMERICA ANOTHER SEKOND OF ME AND MY FAMILIA BEING AT THIS COUNTRY OF KOMPLETE FAILURESZ THEY RE KOMPLETE LOSERZ/ ALL THEY DO IS FAIL IT S WRONG I DON'T THREATEN PERSONS (I LIVE) AND I DON AKKNOWLEDGE THREATSZ VERY FOWL/ JEANETTE DIED OVER DEKADE MR RAMSEY DIED 2 018 NOT UNO OWES ME ANYTHING THOUGH IF THEY STOLE OWE/ WELL WE LL BE AT ANOTHER KOUNTRY/ OH WELL/ THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT NO NEED TO EXPLAIN THE REALITY OF / GUST DO/ I THOUGHT THE CREATOR OF THIS PLASE EARTH WAS ABOUT SOMETHING AND HONESTLY SPASE I KNOW YOU RE ABOUT SOMETHING/ REALITY KMR(TATS) MUSHOS GRASIAS GRASIAS FOR READING/ (AN HONEST PERSON)

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    Mr.FixerUpper

    they don't want people who aren't mentally prepared to meet or have some sort of contact with a being(s) of a different origin to freak out,bring an earth bound disease like the black plague to another planet, littering on another planet as the same of what is an on going problem here on earth,ignorant people causing altercations with beings of a different planet which may lead to a global problem ,and many other things too long to list on this comment section. only those mentally capable of meeting beings from a different planet/origin , and those respectful enough to not litter and Follow orders strictly when it comes to those scenarios, should be the only ones from the public allowed for interstellar travel and study. those who are ignorant or unwilling to listen to orders of this serious scenarios should NOT be allowed to go beyond this planet! all those willing to follow these strict guidelines should have this chance of a lifetime opportunity to prove their worthiness, whether it be by augmented reality/virtual reality exactly like the matrix to monitor our thought processing of how we handle those situations first obviously before venturing out into the unknown.

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    David Gordon

    LOOK KAN ANYONE HEAR THEY BROUGHT COCCATRICE BUGSZ THATS AN PLAGUE-/TARRAN TULAS TOLERATE NOT MENASEA BUGSZ/ AH KOME- ON BRIMSTONE / KNOW THERE HAS TO BE AT LEAST NUEVE ALREADY STRENGTHFUL STRONG PERSONSZ NO NS NO BLACCCSZ NO NS/ KOMPRENDE- WHAT IS SPASE WORD HAPPINESS VIKTORY MEAN IF/ SPASE SEEMS HAPPY NO DISRESPEKT WHOM CREATED THE PLASE EARTH MAYBE HE NOT SOW HAPPY/ REALLY NON- RELIGION GENESIS HIS CUNNING FAILURE LOSER SERPENT SON/ AND HE S STILL AN BOGARTY WHORE/ EMBARRASSING SEEMSZ/ WELL MUSHOS GRASIAS GRASIAS READING (ADIOS) DOSE-(KMR TATS)/ REALLY/

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    NortheStargh Vee DestiNiey

    I love the Universes especially one my guano is in. Just FYI these msg are meant for who they pertain to

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    David Gordon

    That SICCC WACCCO PULLING OUT HIS PRIVI/ NEW ORLEANS PROB SAME DUDE HE PULLED HIS PRIVI TAH MYA THE SINGER/ THAT SICCC WACCCO WAS WARNED- I WARNED IT- NO THREATS/

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    David Gordon

    WHOM EVER LEAVE ME ALONE YOU RE VERY ILL FAILURE LOSERS DON T TALK TAH STRANGERSZ YOU CREEP/ REALLY I WARNED YOU HO STOP/

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    David Gordon

    SPASE EXKUSE ME ALOHA WOULD YOU TELL AMERICA/ AMERICANSZ AND REALLY REALLY GET OUT OF MY WAY REALLY! IT S THEY VE LOATHED ETK /SINSE 1967- THERE IS ONLY UNO KIMBERLY MICHELLE R/(TATS) SEALSZ/ HOW MANY SEALSZ- SEALSZ HOW MANY SEALSZ- THEY SAY IT S NOVEMBER 21 2 019 THURSDAY/ NO THREATS THEY WERE WARNED:

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    Kirsty Taylor

    Don't get me wrong, I love this documentary. It's my favourite sedative. But, where are the actual images from Hubble? Most of the images and clips are just lovely screensavers.

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